Photo above: A large group of Bwami initiates of the lutumbo lwa yananio, musage wa kindi, and lutumbo lwa kindi wearing the distinctive paraphernalia, mainly the hats and belts of their rank. Following a break of a dance performance, they are ready to engage in the next ritual episode. Note: women of bulonda and bunyama grades are also present but not visible in this image (1952).


Aspects of rituals of the Bwami association performed outside of the initiation house; some of the rites shown in the photos pertain to the yananio initiations; others to the kindi.

The itutu rite emphasises the social importance and visibility of the men and women initiated into lutumbo lwa  kindi and kanyamwa. 

Photo is part of the nkunda rite of lutumbo lwa kindi – carrying the turtle shell wrapped in a feather rope (upper right). The other photos represent yananio initiations, some in the lukwakongo, others in the lubumba rite, and katana rite.