Photo above: A large group of dancers wearing construction masks related to the Mukanda ritual complex. The latter is involved in young men’s circumcision rites that are followed by intensive learning on the activities and values of manhood. The dancers are performing in a Pende village of “territoire” Feshi. Photo Biebuyck, 1954.
Circumcision rites among the Pende, Cokwe, Yaka, etc.: Mukanda